Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is the active ingredient in a type of psychotropic substance commonly known as “bath salts.” Bath salts have been in the news lately as the substance behind several violent outbursts and attacks, including the case of a Miami man who chewed pieces off the face of a homeless person while high on the drug. Hallucinations and agitation seem to be the most common side effects of methylenedioxypyrovalerone. Bath salts can be found in almost every state, in gas stations and convenience stores. Concerned over the dangerousness of the ingredients of bath salts, in 2011 the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) declared the possession or sale of methylenedioxypyrovalerone to be illegal. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone is a norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). In essence, it increases the presence of both norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. NDRIs have been successfully used in the treatment of hyperactivity disorders and depression. However, MDPV is several times more potent than other commonly-prescribed NDRIs, such as Ritalin. MDPV is primarily white in color and typically clumps together. It is a very powerful stimulant and, when it works as designed, can result in euphoria, increased attention and sexual arousal for as many as four hours.