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(337 results for Opiods Detoxification)

Opiods Detoxification

Drug overdose deaths continue to increase in the U.S., with more than one in six overdoses attributed to an opioid. Heroin is an illicit opioid derived from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants. Heroin addiction, like other substance use disorders, results from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Heroin is currently less costly and easier to buy on the street than many prescription opioids, which experts attribute at least in part to the recent increase in its use. Research indicates a close tie between prescription opioid abuse and later heroin use.

Prescription Opioids

Opioids are synthetically manufactured prescription pain relievers that reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain, thereby diminishing the effects of painful stimuli. This class of pain killer includes codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone and variants with acetaminophen. Although prescription opioids can be used effectively for pain management, they come with serious risks. When used as an intoxicant, prescription opioids produce a sense of wellbeing and pleasure because the drugs affect brain regions involved in reward. The drugs’ euphoric producing, reality-bending characteristics are seductive for people seeking an escape from persistent physical or emotional pain. Like heroin, prescription opioids have the potential to produce long-term changes in human brain chemistry, with a high risk of physical dependence and addiction.

Opioid Detox

Factors such as duration of use, comorbidities (mental and physical health issues), co-occurring drug abuse and DNA influence the manner in which a person experiences withdrawal and detox, including specific symptoms and their severity. In general terms, an individual will experience three phases during opiate detox. In the first phase, withdrawal symptoms can start within hours of last use, build over the first 48 hours and generally reach the worst peak the third day. During the second phase, the body starts to produce its own endorphins and as the body adjusts, other symptoms can occur. In the third phase, lingering aches and pains mimic the last stages of a bad case of flu. Although the body has partially recovered physically, symptoms such as anxiety and mild to moderate depression are common in the absence of the euphoria-producing opiate.

Detox Medications

Medications can be helpful in detox by easing cravings and other physical symptoms associated with triggering a relapse. These medications work through the same receptors as the addictive drug but are safer and less likely to produce harmful addictive behaviors. The three classes developed to date include:

1. Agonists: Methadone (Dolophine and Methadose), which activate opioid receptors
2. Partial agonists: Buprenorphine (Subutex and Suboxone), which also activate opioid receptors but produce a diminished response
3. Antagonists: Naltrexone (Depade, Revia and Vivitrol), which block the receptor and interfere with the rewarding effects of opioids.

Medication-assisted treatment is most effective when offered in conjunction with a full spectrum of therapeutic rehab services addressing the underlying addiction. These include behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy, a wide range of complementary therapies, 12-step programs, family support groups, psychoeducation and treatment of co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

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More on Opiods Detoxification

Drug overdose deaths continue to increase in the U.S., with more than one in six overdoses attributed to an opioid. Heroin is an illicit opioid derived from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants. Heroin addiction, like other substance use disorders, results from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Heroin is currently less costly and easier to buy on the street than many prescription opioids, which experts attribute at least in part to the recent increase in its use. Research indicates a close tie between prescription opioid abuse and later heroin use.

Prescription Opioids

Opioids are synthetically manufactured prescription pain relievers that reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain, thereby diminishing the effects of painful stimuli. This class of pain killer includes codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone and variants with acetaminophen. Although prescription opioids can be used effectively for pain management, they come with serious risks. When used as an intoxicant, prescription opioids produce a sense of wellbeing and pleasure because the drugs affect brain regions involved in reward. The drugs’ euphoric producing, reality-bending characteristics are seductive for people seeking an escape from persistent physical or emotional pain. Like heroin, prescription opioids have the potential to produce long-term changes in human brain chemistry, with a high risk of physical dependence and addiction.

Opioid Detox

Factors such as duration of use, comorbidities (mental and physical health issues), co-occurring drug abuse and DNA influence the manner in which a person experiences withdrawal and detox, including specific symptoms and their severity. In general terms, an individual will experience three phases during opiate detox. In the first phase, withdrawal symptoms can start within hours of last use, build over the first 48 hours and generally reach the worst peak the third day. During the second phase, the body starts to produce its own endorphins and as the body adjusts, other symptoms can occur. In the third phase, lingering aches and pains mimic the last stages of a bad case of flu. Although the body has partially recovered physically, symptoms such as anxiety and mild to moderate depression are common in the absence of the euphoria-producing opiate.

Detox Medications

Medications can be helpful in detox by easing cravings and other physical symptoms associated with triggering a relapse. These medications work through the same receptors as the addictive drug but are safer and less likely to produce harmful addictive behaviors. The three classes developed to date include:

1. Agonists: Methadone (Dolophine and Methadose), which activate opioid receptors
2. Partial agonists: Buprenorphine (Subutex and Suboxone), which also activate opioid receptors but produce a diminished response
3. Antagonists: Naltrexone (Depade, Revia and Vivitrol), which block the receptor and interfere with the rewarding effects of opioids.

Medication-assisted treatment is most effective when offered in conjunction with a full spectrum of therapeutic rehab services addressing the underlying addiction. These include behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy, a wide range of complementary therapies, 12-step programs, family support groups, psychoeducation and treatment of co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

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